Dating in carlisle cumbria
They are in red sandstone with some calciferous sandstone and some re-used Roman stone, partly on a chamfered plinth.
In some parts the parapet forms a pavement, and in other parts buildings were constructed against it.
Also during the 12th century and later, the fortifications, including the city walls and the castle, were strengthened to defend against raids from the Scots.
The city began to grow from the middle of the 18th century, stimulated by the building of the turnpikes towards Newcastle upon Tyne and London in the 1750s, followed by a canal and later the railway.
These are followed by civic structures, such as the Guildhall, the former Town Hall, and the market cross.
Most of the later buildings are, or originated as, houses and shops, many of which have since been converted for other uses, particularly offices.
The keep has an almost square plan, measuring 60 feet (18 m) by 67 feet (20 m). Some arrow slits remain and others have been widened into sash or casement windows. Included in the listing are the quartermaster's store dating from 1827, and the remaining rear wall of the governor's house dating from 1577.
It contains about 350 buildings that are recorded in the National Heritage List for England.
There is also a projecting canted turret dating from the 15th or 16th century.
The city walls have been repaired and re-faced on a number of occasions.
Since then there have been numerous additions and alterations, including repairs following the fall of the tower in 1380.
There was a major restoration in 1852–56 by Ewan Christian.
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The buildings originally included a mews stables in the late 19th century, warehouses, and a school in 1813.